Chorus 1 Pacing Guide

Time-Period Currently Unspecified
define “copyright” and discuss applicable materials, media, and performances. (MU.912.F.3.2NTK R)
  • licensing information
  • guidelines for posting performances online
  • definition of copyright
list materials subject to copyright law and discuss proper usage, payment, etc. (MU.912.F.3.2NTK R)
  • music
  • software
  • literature
  • MP3's
  • other works
discuss the implications of copyright infringement, e.g., loss of revenue, pirated original compositions, recorded materials, web-based media, etc. (MU.912.F.3.2NTK R)
  • financial impact on composers and artist, etc
identify and discuss musical terms and symbols in a given piece, e.g., tempo markings, expressive markings, articulations, phrasing, key, meter, etc. (MU.912.O.3.1I R)
apply expressive elements to the musical work being studied. (MU.912.O.3.1I R)
infer compositional intent based on the structural elements of the musical work being studied. (MU.912.O.3.1I R)
differentiate between effective and ineffective rehearsal techniques (MU.912.S.3.4I R)
suggest appropriate rehearsal strategies to improve upon performance (MU.912.S.3.4I R)
All Year
observe classroom rules. (DA.912.S.2.1BAC )
  • How to enter/exit classroom
  • evacuation plan
  • document collection/distribution
  • classroom supply requirements (e.g. journals, pencils, box of tissues)
  • restroom privileges
respect peers and equipment. (DA.912.S.2.1BAC )
show focus and pacing during self-directed practice time. (DA.912.S.2.1BAC )
interpret unfamiliar English terms using their home language dictionary or an online translator (ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1BAC )
  • how to use a home language dictionary or online translation program
perform rhythmic and melodic patterns accurately by imitating aural patterns demonstrated by the teacher and/or peers (ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1BAC )
  • procedure for aurally deciphering rhythms (e.g. count singing, speaking rhythms, subdividing)
  • Curwen hand signs and solfeggio syllables
  • intervallic relationships
perform rhythmic and melodic patterns accurately by visually interpreting musical symbols (ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1BAC )
  • pitches on the staff, rhythmic patterns appropriate to the course level
All Year
use classroom visual aids to accurately interpret and perform musical symbols and abbreviations (ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1BAC )
communicate withe a peer tutor/buddy for clarification on concepts presented in class (ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1BAC )
  • section leader for students' vocal/instrumental section
All Year
imitate sound concepts modeled by the teacher and peers (ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1BAC )
  • how to produce a characteristic tone
All Year
rehearse and perform music in class with their peers to demonstrate comprehension and synthesis of skills (ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1BAC )
  • classroom procedures
  • proper posture
  • how to follow the director
  • how to take a proper breath while playing and/or singing
  • where to locate the rehearsal plan and/or classroom objectives
recognize, count and notate simple rhythms and rests (ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1BAC )
  • procedure for deciphering rhythms (e.g. count singing, speaking rhythms, subdividing)
differentiate between English terminology and musical terminology (ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1BAC )
  • music terminology usually in Italian and usually italicized
All Year
demonstrate a musical idea as a model for peers. (LAFS.910.SL.1.1BAC )
unify ideas and decisions though collaboration and communication according to music rehearsal convention within sections across the ensemble, and with the director. (LAFS.910.SL.1.1BAC )
  • rehearsal communication conventions
initiate independent refinement of repertoire through collaboration with peers (LAFS.910.SL.1.1BAC )
Discuss the effectiveness of a clinician's pacing and choice of rehearsal techniques in regards to improvement in performance. (LAFS.910.SL.1.3BAC )
  • discern improvement
  • recognize rehearsal techniques
  • vocal tone, facial expression, gestures, syntax, semantics, lexicon
write a paragraph critique of class rehearsal (LAFS.910.WHST.2.4BAC )
  • directors objective
rewrite the text in your own words to maintain the meaning of the lyrics. (LAFS.910.WHST.2.4BAC )
  • understand lyrics in context of poetry
listen to multiple recordings of the same piece to develop a preferred interpretation of a musical element (e.g., phrasing, tempo, dynamic contrast). (LAFS.910.WHST.3.9BAC )
listen to multiple recordings within a specific genre to understand the defining stylistic elements. (LAFS.910.WHST.3.9BAC )
listen to multiple pieces by the same composer to realize a composer’s style and technique. (LAFS.910.WHST.3.9BAC )
prepare a varied repertoire with attention to technical, stylistic, and expressive elements as indicated in the music. (LAFS.910.WHST.3.9BAC )
  • notes and rest values
  • dynamic and expressive markings
  • articulation markings
  • musical styles/genres: see MU.912.C.1.4
recognize the connection between a problem and a properly used tool that may provide a solution (MAFS.K12.MP.5.1BAC )
  • e.g., metronome, tuner, notation software, digital recorder, pencil, reference materials and media resources, accumulated knowledge, maintenance accessories, ear protection, keyboard instruments, microphone, amplifier
understand that specific tools, while assisting in the process, do not supersede skills and technique. (MAFS.K12.MP.5.1BAC )
demonstrate precision in the execution of unison pulse within the ensemble regarding rhythmic accuracy (attack, duration, release), synchronized rhythmic execution and tempo. (MAFS.K12.MP.6.1BAC )
  • note/rest values appropriate to course and literature
  • time signatures appropriate to course and literature
use domain specific vocabulary to communicate precise ideas and opinions with others. (MAFS.K12.MP.6.1BAC )
demonstrate precision in execution of pitch accuracy and intonation regarding tonality (MAFS.K12.MP.6.1BAC )
  • tonality: MU.68.C.1.1
demonstrate precision in the execution of expressive elements regarding the execution of dynamics, articulations, phrasing, and style. (MAFS.K12.MP.6.1BAC )
  • expressive markings that relate to musical effect regarding dynamics, tempo, phrasing, musical line, dynamics, style, articulations
  • standard conducting patterns
  • expressive conducting gesture
utilize pattern recognition to memorize music. (MAFS.K12.MP.7.1BAC )
reorganize performance practices according to given rhythmic hierarchies (MAFS.K12.MP.7.1BAC )
  • beat groupings and metric stress
recognize patterns through music theory and utilize the information in rehearsal, individual practice, and performance. (MAFS.K12.MP.7.1BAC )
  • patterns such as form, time signatures, phrasing, sequencing, hemiola, key centers, harmonic structure, voicing, modulation, and instrumentation.
perform individually and in groups followed by feedback from peers and teacher. (MU.912.C.1.2I R)
  • performance evaluation
discuss title, text, context, and composer’s notes. (MU.912.C.1.2I R)
  • elements of performance piece
perform appropriate and representative versions of a variety of vocal styles and classifications. (MU.912.C.1.4E R)
  • Musical elements that define various vocal styles
  • Applied individual and group pedagogy and performance practice.
  • Synthesis of musical knowledge and skills.
  • Interpretive elements of the composition.
  • A variety of appropriate and representaive musical styles.
identify performance accuracy and technique relative to pitch, intonation, balance, blend, phrasing, etc. (MU.912.C.2.1BAC )
  • Technical Preparation: intonation, pitch accuracy, rhythmic precision, balance, entrances, releases
  • Tone Quality; breath supposrt, register adjustmen, vowels, blend
  • Musical Effect; tempo, phrasing, musical line, dynamics, style, articulations
apply feedback individually, cooperatively, and with teacher guidance. (MU.912.C.2.1BAC )
  • assessment strategies
listen to two or more examples of the same recording. (MU.912.C.2.2I R)
  • critical listening skills
listen to two or more examples of the same recording. (MU.912.C.2.2I R)
  • critical listening skills
listen to selected examples of model choral recordings. (MU.912.C.3.1E R)
  • critical listening skills
attend performances of quality performing groups in the choral and theatrical setting. (MU.912.C.3.1E R)
  • access community resources
explore leadership opportunities and leadership positions outside of the music room. (MU.912.F.3.1BAC )
transfer skills that are developed in the music room, e.g., mastering a task, problem-solving, self-discipline, dependability, organization, cultural awareness, and mutual respect, etc. (MU.912.F.3.1BAC )
listen to representative examples of music from diverse cultures and eras. (MU.912.H.1.1BAC )
  • exposure to different music genres (early music to present-day music)
perform repertoire with contrasting styles and structural elements. (MU.912.O.2.1BAC )
use sequencing strategies for memorizing a piece. (MU.912.S.2.1E P)
identify shared concepts, skills, and processes between two or more pieces. (MU.912.S.2.2BAC )
recognize, in self and others, the correct singing position for the body and understand the direct impact on quality tone and intonation. (MU.912.S.3.5E P)
  • standing and seated singing posture
  • age-appropriate vocal quality
  • recognize and self-correct posture for intonation issues
First Semester
perform basic themes, melodic, and rhythmic patterns with accuracy. (MU.912.S.2.1E P)
Pitch-matching – aural skills; echo, call & response; individualized attention; singing circles, etc. (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
First Quarter
View Ted Talks - Benjamin Zander: The transformative power of classical music. Do you agree or disagree with Zander's point of view. Why or why not is Zander qualified to speak extensively about classical music? Provide reasons why one may speak with fallacious reasoning and/or exaggerate or distort information? (LAFS.910.SL.1.3BAC )
Hierarchy of learning to sing independently: 1. Sing a melody 2. Add an ostinato (rhythmic and/or melodic) 3. Partner song 4. Add descant 5. Sing phrases or sections or a round 6. Sing rounds and canons 7. Sing 2-part homophonic pieces (MU.912.S.2.1E P)
Week 1
recognize the function of lines and spaces of the staff (including the addition of ledger lines) as the means of visually representing pitch (MAFS.K12.MP.7.1BAC )
Perform sequential diatonic scale (major scale/major mode) using solfege syllables [Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti] with Curwen Glover hand signs. (MU.912.S.1.4E O)
demonstrate proper singing posture with proper breathing: (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • diaphragmatic breath – free, low & centered breath which leaves the rib cage in an open, upright position.
  • Singing Posture - Position of back, shoulders, rib cage
Visually identify – whole, half, quarter, eighth notes (including beams) (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Identify elements of Staff: (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
  • Staff – pitches are named and absolute/fixed based on assigned clef.
  • Musical letter/pitch names: A B C D E F G
  • Every line & space represents a directional ‘step’.
  • Staff can be extended w/ ledger lines.
  • Combination with other staves creates systems.
Identify elements of Measure: (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
  • Visual grouping of beats, delineated by barlines.
  • Measures are numbered sequentially from beginning to end, used to find location in music.
  • Place in music: page, system, measure, beat
Identify elements of Pitch Notation: (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
  • Note head: filled vs. open
  • Stem: up on right or down on left
  • Flags and equivalent beam for groupings of same rhythmic values (eighth & sixteenth notes)
Week 2
differentiate between major and minor tonality. (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
  • The tonic solfege syllable sets the music’s mode: 1. Major mode: do is tonic (do = 1) 2. Minor mode: la is tonic (la = 1) 3. Relative major/minor: the relationship of tonalities between do tonic and la tonic.
identify steps within a scale (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
  • Tonality is the organization of all the tones and harmonies of a piece of music in relation to a key center, or tonic. Each step, including tonic, is numbered as a scale degree; example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Sing material using a systematic approach (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
  • Reading systems: moveable do, fixed do, la minor, do minor
repeat a simple dictated melody using solfeggio. (MU.912.S.1.4E O)
  • Solfege syllables: Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti Do
Sing major scale/mode using solfege syllables w/ Curwen Glover hand signs. (continue throughout semester/year) (MU.912.S.1.4E O)
Sing relative minor (natural) scale/mode (La Ti Do Re Mi Fa Sol La) (MU.912.S.1.4E O)
Establish Concept of Group Tone – rounded, uniform tone through correct mixture of resonators. Suggestion: contrasting cultural concepts of tone (e.g. recordings of authentic American choral works vs. authentic Vietnamese choral works). (MU.912.S.2.2BAC )
Discuss the Vocal Instrument (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • Respiration – breath support – consciously controlled inhalation & exhalation
  • Phonation – subconsciously controlled tension in the vibrating vocal cords
  • Resonation – part consciously controlled: chest, pharynx, oral cavity, nasal cavity, sinuses, etc.
  • Articulation – the product of phonation, resonation & muscular movements of the speech organs (lips, tongue, teeth, hard palate, soft palate, uvula, glottis, a. ridge) that produce recognizable speech sounds.
Discuss Vocal Placement/Resonators – sound changes according to the shape of space in instruments. (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • Chest voice
  • Head voice
  • Nasal placements
Rhythmic sight reading: speak rhythms including eighth, quarter, quarter rest, half & whole notes. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Melodic sight reading: sing exercises using solfege, given first note reference. (range: do - la) (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Identify music clefs and assign letter names to the staff: (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
  • Treble Clef, G-clef, assigns letters to the staff relative to the position of G4; letter names fall to spell “F A C E” on the spaces on the staff, bottom to top.
  • Bass Clef, F-clef, assigns letters to the staff relative to the position of F3; letter names fall to spell “A C E G” on the spaces of the staff, bottom to top.
Week 3
understand rhythmic relationships regarding time signature classification. (MAFS.K12.MP.7.1BAC )
  • simple, compound and mixed meters
  • function of top and bottom numbers in time signatures
Identify subdivision of beat: (MU.912.O.3.1I R)
  • Simple - two equal parts
  • Compound - three equal parts
Interpret time signatures: (MU.912.O.3.1I R)
  • Top number determines the type of meter: Simple meters: 2, 3, 4; Compound meters: 6,9,12, etc. (multiples of 3)
Determine the number of beats: (MU.912.O.3.1I R)
  • Simple meters – top number is the number of beats.
  • Compound meters – top number divided by 3 (ex. 6 = 2 beats in groupings of 3)
Describing number of beats: 2 duple, 3 triple, 4 quadruple (MU.912.O.3.1I R)
Review Rhythmic Hierarchy – Understanding rhythmic relationships (MU.912.O.3.1I R)
learn basic conducting patterns for 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4. (MU.912.O.3.2E P)
improvise short sections of given literature using text or neutral syllables. (MU.912.S.1.1BAC C)
  • rhythm patterns
  • ostinato
  • round
  • standard harmonic progressions
  • call & response techniques
Compare vocal register qualities & long-term vocal health risks. (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • Vocal fry
  • Modal voice
  • Falsetto
  • Whistle registers
Rhythmic sight reading: previous rhythms, adding dotted-quarter/eighth note pattern. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Melodic sight reading: sing exercises using solfege, given first note reference. (range: do - do) (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 4
Discuss the difference between range and tessitura: (LAFS.910.RST.2.4BAC )
  • Range: the span from the lowest to the highest note a singer can produce.
  • Tessitura: musically acceptable & comfortable range for a given singer. Also, the general range of a voice part in a piece of music.
identify the choral ensemble, e.g., unison, SA, SSAA, SAB, SATB. (MU.912.C.1.4E R)
  • SA
  • SATB
  • SAB
  • SSAA
aurally identify the size of various vocal groups and characterize their voicing. (MU.912.C.1.4E R)
  • Solo
  • Duet
  • Ensemble
  • Choir
Identify choral voice parts: (MU.912.C.1.4E R)
  • Soprano
  • Alto
  • Tenor
  • Bass
  • Divisi of choral parts: I – higher, II – lower (ex. SI or S1, SII or S2)
Identify voice types: (MU.912.C.1.4E R)
  • Soprano
  • Mezzo-soprano
  • Contralto
  • Baritone
  • Bass
Set individual vocal goals (range, tone, quality, comfort, independence, etc.) (MU.912.C.2.1BAC )
Perform exercises utilizing inner hearing/listening techniques (audiation). (MU.912.S.1.4E O)
Rhythmic sight reading: previous rhythms plus single beat triplet. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Melodic sight reading: include skips on tonic triad (major scale) (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
  • Scale degrees: 1 3 5 Major: do mi sol Minor: la do mi
Week 5
Identify accidentals: (LAFS.910.RST.2.4BAC )
  • flats - lower pitch
  • sharps - raise pitch
  • naturals - cancel previous accidentals
part-sing with independence and awareness of other vocal parts. (MU.912.S.2.1E P)
Identify placement of pitches on keyboard instrument: (MU.912.S.2.1E P)
  • Each letter name has its own sharp and flat.
  • Half-step: smallest interval or musical distance in Western tonality.
  • Whole-step: distance of two half steps, usually called by the next letter name in sequence.
  • Enharmonic: notes that are written differently (as A flat and G sharp) but sound the same.
demonstrate ability to sing with unified vowels: (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • Introduction to International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA): Italian vowels: ee [ i ] ay [ e ] ah [ a ] oh [ o ] oo [ u ] aw [ ? ] eh [ ? ] ih [ I ] uh [ ? ]
demonstrate ability to sing with clear and precise consonants: (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • “th”: ? (unvoiced) ; ð (voiced)
  • “sh”: ? (unvoiced) ; ? (voiced)
  • “s”: s (unvoiced) ; z (voiced)
Rhythmic sight reading: compound duple meter; include eighth note rests. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Melodic sight reading: sing & sign harmonic minor (La Ti Do Re Mi Fa Si La). (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 6
Identify key signatures: (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
  • Key Signatures is a series of sharps or flats placed on the staff, designating notes that are to be consistently played one half-step higher or lower than the equivalent natural notes unless otherwise altered with an accidental. (exception: C major/a minor have zero sharps/flats in their key signatures.)
Identify flat key signatures: (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
  • The letter names that flat key signatures alter in order as they appear on the staff: 1-B 2-E 3-A 4-D 5-G 6-C 7-F
  • The last flat of the key signature always corresponds with solfege “fa.”
  • One to the left from the last flat in the order of flats corresponds with “do,” indicating the major key name.
Identify sharp key signatures: (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
  • The letter names that sharp key signatures alter in order as they appear on the staff: 1-F 2-C 3-G 4-D 5-A 6-E 7-B * exact opposite order as flats
  • The last sharp of the key signature always corresponds with solfege “ti.”
  • Two to the right from the last sharp in the order of sharps corresponds with “do,” indicating the major key name.
Identify diphthongs and triphthongs in text: (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • Diphthongs: two vowel sounds on one syllable. e.g. house [ah-oo], boat [o-oo], boy [o-ee]
  • Triphthongs: three vowel sounds on one syllable. e.g. hour [ah-oo-rrr], fire [ah-ee-rrr]
identify key signatures of the literature being sung. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Rhythmic sight reading: add syncopation, stressed performance on off-beats, at two, three and four beat combinations. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 7
Identify road signs in music: (LAFS.910.RST.2.4BAC )
  • Rehearsal letters
  • Repeat Signs
  • First Ending, Second Ending
  • Da Capo (D.C.): to the beginning
  • Dal Segno (D.S): to the sign
  • Segno (the 'sign')
  • Coda - ending section
  • al fine: to the measure marked fine
  • al coda: to the ending section
Student correctly identifies solfege and/or counts for a sample melody on the board and clearly presents their findings to the class referencing the key signature and time signature to support their claims. (LAFS.910.SL.2.4BAC )
  • solfeggio reading method
  • identify key signature
  • identify time signature
Identify expressive articulations: (MU.912.O.3.1I R)
  • Accents – perform louder, especially on the attack (start of sound).
  • Marcato – perform with emphasis and slightly separated.
  • Staccato – perform short and detached.
  • Tenuto – perform with full rhythmic value usually with added weight.
  • Legato – perform smoothly and connectedly.
  • Slurs - Perform without separation, notes are different.
  • Ties - Combines rhythmic values, notes are the same.
Rhythmic sight reading: Add sixteenth beat level patterns. Add ties over the bar line. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Melodic sight reading: alternate between major exercises with tonic/triadic skips and harmonic minor – stepwise exercises. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 8
analyze voicing, accompaniment, and expressive elements indicated in the music. (MU.912.C.1.2I R)
  • dynamic markings
  • expressive markings
identify a conductor’s gestural cues relating to tempo, dynamics, phrasing, and expressive elements. (MU.912.O.3.2E P)
identify dynamic markings: (MU.912.O.3.2E P)
  • Pianissimo (pp) - Very soft. Usually the softest indication in a piece of music, though softer dynamics are often specified with additional ps.
  • Piano (p) - Soft. Usually the most often used indication.
  • Mezzo piano (mp) – Medium soft. Literally, half as soft as piano.
  • Mezzo forte (mf) – Medium loud. Similarly, half as loud as forte. More commonly used than mezzo-piano. If no dynamic appears, mezzo-forte is assumed to be the prevailing dynamic level.
  • Forte (f) - Loud. Used as often as piano to indicate contrast.
  • Fortissimo (ff) - Very loud. Usually the loudest indication in a piece, though louder dynamics are often specified with additional fs (such as fortississimo - seen below).
  • Crescendo (cresc.) - A gradual increase in volume. Can be extended under many notes to indicate that the volume steadily increases during the passage.
  • Diminuendo (dim.) - A gradual decrease in volume. Also decrescendo (decresc.) Can be extended in the same manner as crescendo.
  • Subito (sub.) - Suddenly. Used in conjunction with a contrasting dynamic level.
demonstrate proper dynamics through a deeper understanding of breath support: (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • dynamics are not created by more or less air flow (escape of air).
  • dynamics are controlled through increased support via opposing breathing muscles.
define and apply relevant musical terms and expressive markings in the literature being sung. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Rhythmic sight reading: add two beat triplet (quarter note triplet). (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Melodic sight reading: alternate between major exercises with tonic/triadic skips and harmonic minor – stepwise exercises. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Second Quarter
identify quality recordings of vocal performances. (MU.912.C.1.2I R)
  • elements of a quality performance
  • aesthetics
aurally recognize various vocal styles including chant, spiritual, folk/traditional, opera, world, jazz, etc. (MU.912.C.1.4E R)
  • critical listening skills of various styles
work cooperatively in small groups/sectionals to generate relevant vocal exercises and assessments. (MU.912.S.3.4I R)
Week 10
define music terms and symbols in a given piece, e.g., tempo markings, dynamics, key, and meter, etc. (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
identify melody, counter melody, and accompaniment. (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
differentiate between melody and harmony. (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
Describe texture of music: (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
  • Monophonic: single melodic line without any accompaniment
  • Homophonic: single melodic line supported with harmonic accompaniment
  • Polyphonic: two or more independent melodic voices (usually imitative)
  • Heterophonic: two or more voices simultaneously performing variations of the same melody
Describe melodic contour: (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
  • similar motion: movement of two musical lines in same direction but with different intervals
  • parallel motion: movement of two musical lines in same direction with the same quantitative intervals
  • contrary motion: movement of two musical lines in opposite directions
  • oblique motion: movement of one musical line while another remains on the same pitch
demonstrate ability to sing with proper intonation. (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • The ability to play or sing notes in tune. (pitch accuracy)
  • The “center” of the pitch adjusts according to harmonic context. Western equal-tempered instruments, like the piano, have their pitches adjusted into 12 “equal” distances between octaves to sound as good as possible in all keys.
  • There are tendency notes in the scale that need adjustment from equal temperament to be sung with better intonation: Scale degree 4, tends to be sung too high (often leading to group key center going sharp); Scale degree 7 as leading tone, usually needs to be slightly higher; Scale degree 5, slightly higher in tonic harmonies; Scale degree 3, tends to be sung slightly flat.
  • Build awareness that without attentiveness, ascending melodic lines will tend to go sharp and descending lines tend to go flat.
Sight reading: skips on dominant harmonies. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
  • Scale degrees: 5 7 2 ; Major: sol ti re ; Minor: mi si ti
Week 11
Discuss the different musical style periods with key word associations: (MU.912.H.1.1BAC )
  • Middle Ages (500-1400): Gregorian chant, standardization of music notation.
  • Renaissance (1400-1600): Early instruments, music moves towards major/minor modes.
  • Baroque (1600-1750): Polyphony, ornamentation.
  • Classical (1750-1830): Clarity of melody through homophony, greater emphasis on dynamics and phrasing, clear cadences, structure of music clearly defined.
  • Romantic (1815-1910): Mostly homophonic, increased emotional expression through music, more freedom from strict structures, bolder dynamic contrasts and climaxes.
  • 20th Century (1900-2000): Extreme registers and unconventional use of instruments, emphasis on rhythmic elements, experimentation with non-tonal systems, introduction of electronic media, rise of education and accessibility to popular music.
identify specific historical events inspired by music, musicians, and/or composers. (MU.912.H.2.1BAC )
discuss how music has impacted elements of society, e.g., religion, literature, wars, revolutions, governments/rulers. (MU.912.H.2.1BAC )
listen to and identify compositions with contrasting styles. (MU.912.O.2.1BAC )
demonstrate ability to sing with proper entrances and releases. (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • Varied inhalation, speed and air pathway, according to desired attack
  • Avoidance of glottal attack, the release of excessive pressure built under a closed throat, that is damaging to the vocal folds; awareness of the heavier “false vocal cords” that often cause glottal attacks.
  • Attention to direction of release (up, down, etc.), musical line extending beyond audible sound and technique to maintain open, free airway
Sight reading: skips on sub-dominant harmony. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
  • Scale degrees: 4 6 1 ; Major: fa la do ; Minor: re fa la
Week 12
follow a listening map. (MU.912.C.1.1BAC )
  • agreed method and structure of listening map
engage in active listening by identifying specific forms, e.g., AB, ABA, strophic, etc. (MU.912.C.1.1BAC )
  • melodic material naming conventions
Listen and identify the musical characteristics for Middle Ages and Renaissance style periods: (MU.912.C.1.1BAC )
  • Related Vocabulary for Middle Ages: plainchant, organum, cantus firmus.
  • Related Vocabulary for Renaissance: madrigal, text painting, motet.
identify the similarities and differences of Middle Ages and Renaissance period music. (MU.912.O.2.1BAC )
Demonstrate the ability to sing with appropriate phrasing and musical line. (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • Vary dynamics and articulators for: sustained values longer than a beat, repetition of musical idea or repeated text, contour of melodic material
  • Musical expression with the “Arch Phrase” through the concept of Golden Mean, the middle between excess and deficiency
  • Dovetail endings
Sight reading: diatonic melodies with any skips of thirds. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 13
Listen and identify the musical characteristics for Baroque style periods: (MU.912.C.1.1BAC )
  • Related Vocabulary: harpsichord, forte-piano, oratorio, figured-bass
identify the similarities and differences of Baroque period music with Renaissance period. (MU.912.O.2.1BAC )
identify melody, counter melody, and accompaniment. (MU.912.S.2.1E P)
Demonstrate ability to sing with proper balance. (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • Awareness of section along with other sections while singing
  • Awareness of texture and melodic material
  • Balance in context of chordal voicing (Root, 3rd, 5th of chord)
  • Relationship of matching vowel formation and balance
Sight reading: 2-part stepwise harmonies primarily utilizing locked 3rds and 6ths. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 14
Listen and identify the musical characteristics for Classical style periods: (MU.912.C.1.1BAC )
  • Related Vocabulary: symphony, suite, sonata form, transition, delvelopment, motive, recapitulation, coda, concerto, cadenza, chamber music, string quartet, requiem.
identify the similarities and differences of Classical period music with Baroque period. (MU.912.O.2.1BAC )
Demonstrate ability to sing with proper blend. (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • Awareness of vowel shape at different proximity levels (neighbors, section, choir)
  • Effect of singing in mixed formation (or exercises with neighbor alternation); effect of facing a different direction
  • Voice placement exercise: compare sound of varied placement left to right of three students in different relative positions
Sight reading: 2-part harmonies utilizing contrary and oblique motion. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 15
Listen and identify the musical characteristics for Romantic style periods: (MU.912.C.1.1BAC )
analyze elements of quality performances based on established criteria. (MU.912.C.2.2I R)
  • Technical Preparation: MU.910.C.2.1
  • Tone Quality: MU.910.C.2.1
  • Musical Effect: MU.910.C.2.1
identify the similarities and differences of Romantic period music with Classical period. (MU.912.O.2.1BAC )
Utilize the International Phonetic Alphabet consonants to clarify diction in text: (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • Nasals: air escapes freely through nose [ m, n, ? (onion), ? (sing) ]
  • Plosives: air is blocked by articulators [ p, d, t, d, k, g ]
  • Fricatives: forcing air through a narrow channel in the articulators [ f, v, ?, ð, s, z, ?, ? ]; The “h” placements from forward to back in mouth: [ ç (hue), x (loch), h (hi) ]
  • Approximants: air through a medium channel in the articulators [ ? (red), j (you), r (flipped/trilled r), l (let), w (weep) ]
  • Affricates: plosive followed with a fricative [ ts (let's), dz (ends), t? (bleech), d? (jump) ]
Sight reading: 2-part harmonies utilizing all stepwise motion, including minor mode. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 16
Listen and identify the musical characteristics for 20th Century style periods: (MU.912.C.1.1BAC )
Listen, compare and evaluate the expressive and dramatic effectiveness of performances. (MU.912.C.1.2I R)
identify and characterize the use of text as it pertains to style and genre. (MU.912.C.1.4E R)
  • Musical styles/genres: Chant, Liturgical, Spiritual, Folk, Opera, World, Jazz, Pop
analyze elements of outstanding or representative performances. (MU.912.C.3.1E R)
  • Elements of outstanding/representative performances: Melodic line, texture, rhythmic interest, harmonic interest, emotional content, dynamic contrast, form, applied technique.
  • Musical characteristics of various genres of music.
describe how teamwork in the music ensemble translates to other areas and skills. (MU.912.F.3.1BAC )
  • Stressed importance of individual action and effect on group outcomes relating both to musical benchmarks and group dynamics
Discuss performance etiquette: (MU.912.F.3.3BAC )
  • On stage: posture, facial expression, acceptable amounts of body movement, focus and eye-contact with director, positioning and spacing on risers, entrance and exit from stage.
  • Audience member: allow others to see unobstructed; allow others to hear unobstructed; allow others the freedom to engage active or passive listening without interruption. Appropriate concert recognition: genuine or respectful applause only; for exceptional performance, standing applause only.
identify the similarities and differences of 20th Century period music with Romantic period. (MU.912.O.2.1BAC )
Demonstrate ability to perform with expression and dramatic effect. (MU.912.O.3.1I R)
  • Relies on interpretation of composer intent and understanding period performance practices.
  • Recordings of student performance to distinguish between what is felt (and thought) to be musical shaping to what is actually identifiable to a listening audience.
  • Creating dramatic effect with text through dynamic contrast, musical articulation, and consonants.
analyze a piece based on the expressive elements of the score and/or conductor. (MU.912.O.3.2E P)
demonstrate the ability to sing with appropriate expression and dramatic effect. (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
  • Interpretation of composer intent and understanding period performance practices.
  • Analysis of recorded student performance(s) to determine perceived vs. actual musical shaping.
  • Creating dramatic effect with text through dynamic contrast, musical articulation, and consonants.
Week 17
Compare preferences for particular style-periods. (MU.912.C.1.1BAC )
Identify reasons for personal preferences toward certain time periods. (MU.912.C.1.1BAC )
model proper audience etiquette, expectations, and interaction with performers. (MU.912.F.3.1BAC )
analyze the elements of a given performance. (MU.912.F.3.3BAC )
  • Effect of different performance areas on acoustics
  • Amount of aural feedback from various stage positions
  • Muscle memory as a tool to avoid over singing
  • Tendency of observers to focus on things that do not match
identify examples of music as a cultural function, e.g., anthems, fanfares, religious and ceremonial music, holidays, athletic events, etc. (MU.912.H.1.1BAC )
identify cross curricular musical connections and applications in the various academic content areas, e.g., science and math, etc. (MU.912.H.3.1NTK R)
analyze various technological aspects of musical learning, performing, recording, and delivery systems. (MU.912.H.3.1NTK R)
examine the physical properties of sound, acoustics, sound amplification, digital technologies, and related materials and applications. (MU.912.H.3.1NTK R)
Week 18
describe how skills in the music room transfer into other content areas. (MU.912.F.3.1BAC )
identify music as an influential component of various societal and historical events. (MU.912.H.2.1BAC )
Second Semester
Split into sectionals and analyze phrase structure and defend choices regarding rise and fall, strong and weak beats, syllabic stress, commas, etc. Each section will perform each assigned excerpt and defend reasoning for choices made. Class should discuss whether choices were successful and make suggestions for improvement. (LAFS.910.SL.2.4BAC )
  • identify phrase structure
listen to a recording or watch video of a performance and use the FVA adjudication rubric to assign a rating, drawing evidence from the rubric and/or the octavo to support the rating. (LAFS.910.WHST.3.9BAC )
  • understanding and applying technical vocabulary of rubric
  • active listening skills
develop ideas regarding compositional intent of the composer. (MU.912.C.1.2I R)
  • critical listening skills
Third Quarter
Compare and contrast a piece in the original language versus a secondary language. Discuss the credibility and accuracy of the translation. In an instrumental class, students will compare and contrast the instrumentation of an arrangement versus the original score. Discuss the credibility and accuracy of each version. (LAFS.910.SL.1.2BAC )
  • how to use translation tools available
Read adjudicator comments along side of listening to recordings of your group to discuss the validity of comments, prioritize rehearsal needs accordingly, and brainstorm actions to improve performance. (LAFS.910.SL.1.2BAC )
  • rubric for performance assessment
  • techniques to address various performance needs
identify examples of quality performance through use of choral literature being studied. (MU.912.C.2.2I R)
  • performance evaluation
Model proper student behavior for a successful MPA performance (both onstage and as audience members). (MU.912.F.3.1BAC )
  • Specific topics related to authentic performance of selected MPA literature not limited to but including: control, choral balance, phrasing musical line, articulations, interpretation, expression and dramatic effectiveness
  • Review of acoustical awareness for performance in unfamiliar venues
  • Protocol for group sight reading evaluation
  • Specific topics related to authentic performance of selected MPA literature not limited to but including: pitch accuracy, rhythmic precision, intonation, composer intent, period style, dialect, choral tone, identified stress and release, and vocal weight
apply large group rehearsal strategies to small group/sectional settings. (MU.912.S.3.4I R)
Week 19
compose an eight measure rhythmic exercise within given parameters. (LAFS.910.WHST.2.4BAC )
  • rhythmic hierarchy
notate simple dictated rhythmic patterns. (MU.912.S.1.4E O)
  • rhythms: whole, half, quarter, eighth notes; whole, half, quarter rests.
Sight reading: 2-part harmonies utilizing all stepwise motion, including minor mode. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Identify interval quantity at sight. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
notate the correct rhythms of short dictated exercises in simple meters. (MU.912.S.3.3E R)
  • Rhythmic Dictation: 4 measures; durations: whole, half, quarter notes.
Discuss intervals in terms of quality and quantity: (MU.912.S.3.3E R)
  • Quantity: describes distance between letter names; uses numbers. Count the first letter as 1 and count in letter sequence to second number. Ex. C up to the next E ; Count: C '1', D '2', E '3' ; C up to E is a 3rd. Also note E down to C, then, is also a 3rd.
  • Quality: describes exact distance in half-steps between pitches. 1. Imperfect Consonances: 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 7th: (d: diminished), (m: minor), (M: Major), or (A: Augmented) 2. Perfect Consonances: 1st, 4th, 5th and 8th: (d: diminished), (P: Perfect), or (A: Augmented)
  • Intervals are named by quality then quantity (Ex. M2, P5, m6, etc...)
  • Intervals can be harmonic, performed together, or melodic, performed one after the other.
  • Interval recognition techniques: level of consonance (stability and relatively pleasant) and dissonance (unstable, harsh or unpleasant).
Week 20
Listen to a quality YouTube, Spotify, and/or professional recording of a piece. Based on the composer's intent, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source. (LAFS.910.SL.1.2BAC )
  • interpret score
aurally identify melodic and harmonic intervals: P1, m2, M2, P8 (MU.912.S.1.4E O)
  • P1: 0 half-steps (used to describe distance of repeated pitch or simultaneous performance of same pitch by multiple parts)
  • m2: 1 half-step (tag song: “Jaws”)
  • M2: 2 half-steps (tag song: “Happy Birthday”, “Chopsticks”)
  • A2: 3 half-steps (rare- sounds like interval “m3”, but exists in harmonic minor scale at steps 6 to 7, “fa - si”)
  • P8: 12 half-steps (tag song: “Somewhere Over the Rainbow”) - distance also known as an octave.
Sight reading: 2-part major harmonies with alterations: raised 4 (fa - fi), lowered 7 (ti - teh). (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
notate the correct rhythms of short dictated exercises in simple meters. (MU.912.S.3.3E R)
  • Rhythmic Dictation: 4 measures; durations: whole, half, quarter & quarter rest.
Identify intervallic composition of the steps in the Major scale: (MU.912.S.3.3E R)
  • Do (M2) Re (M2) Mi (m2) Fa (M2) Sol (M2) La (M2) Ti (m2) Do
Week 21
notate simple melodic dictated patterns. (MU.912.S.1.4E O)
  • Solfege syllables: Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti Do
  • rhythms: whole, half, quarter; whole, half, quarter rests
aurally identify melodic and harmonic intervals: m3, M3 (MU.912.S.1.4E O)
  • m3: 3 half-steps (tag song: “Greensleeves”)
  • M3: 4 half-steps (tag song: “Oh, When the Saints”, “Kumbayah”)
Sight reading: 3-part harmonies, step-wise motion. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
notate simple step-wise dictation in a given key. (MU.912.S.3.3E R)
  • Melodic Dictation exercise: 4 measures, stepwise, durations: quarter and half
Week 22
compose an eight measure melodic exercise within given parameters. (LAFS.910.WHST.2.4BAC )
  • melodic motion
  • solfeggio
aurally identify melodic and harmonic intervals: P4, T, P5 (MU.912.S.1.4E O)
  • d4: 4 half-steps (very rare- same sound as more common “M3”)
  • P4: 5 half-steps (tag song: “Here Comes the Bride”)
  • A4: 6 half-steps (tag song: “The Simpsons”)
  • ** “A4” also known as the tritone (3 whole-steps), which cannot be aurally distinguished from the interval “d5.”
  • d5: 6 half-steps (same sound as A4, also known as the tritone.)
  • P5: 7 half-steps (tag songs: “Star Wars”, “2001”)
  • A5: 8 half-steps (rare- same sound as more common interval “m6”)
Sight reading: 3-part harmonies, step-wise motion. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
notate simple step-wise dictation in a given key. (MU.912.S.3.3E R)
  • Melodic Dictation: 4 measures, stepwise; durations: quarter and half
Week 23
aurally identify melodic and harmonic intervals: m6, M6, m7, M7 (MU.912.S.1.4E O)
  • m6: 8 half-steps (tag songs: “The Entertainer”, “Love Story”)
  • M6: 9 half-steps (tag songs: “NBC chime”, “My Bonnie...”)
  • m7: 10 half-steps (tag songs: “Somewhere”, original “Star Trek” theme)
  • M7: 11 half-steps (tag song: “Superman: the Movie”)
Sight reading: 3-part harmonies, step-wise motion. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 24
Sight reading: 3-part harmonies, step-wise motion and skips on tonic triad. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Identify the intervallic composition of the major scale based on tonic (do): (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
  • Using tonic as reference point, all ascending intervals are major or perfect. Ex. do - re (M2); do - mi (M3); do - fa (P4); do - sol (P5); do - la (M6); do - ti (M7); do - do (P8)
  • Using tonic as reference point, all descending intervals are minor or perfect. Ex. do - ti (m2); do - la (m3); do - sol (P4); do - fa (P5); do - mi (m6); do - re (m7); do - do (P8)
Indentify complimentary/inverted intervals: (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
  • Complimentary/Inverted Intervals: intervals that invert to each other, resulting in similar musical qualities M2 - m7; M3 - m6; P4 - P5; P5 - P4; M6 - m3; M7 - m2; P8 - P8
Week 25
Sight reading: 3-part harmonies, step-wise motion and skips on tonic triad. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 26
integrate evaluations and suggestions into current and future performances. (MU.912.C.2.3BAC )
  • performance strategies
Sight reading: 3-part harmonies, step-wise motion and skips on tonic triad. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 27
Evaluate Music Performance Assessments: (MU.912.C.2.1BAC )
  • Tools used to measure effectiveness of MPA performance
  • Feedback on personal contribution toward MPA outcomes
Sight reading: 3-part harmonies, step-wise motion and skips on tonic triad. (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 28
Identify chords and their structure: (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
  • Chords: notes played simultaneously creating harmony
  • Triads: chord is made of three notes arranged by two 3rds
  • Membership of the chord bottom to top is: root, 3rd and 5th (names are interval quantity from starting note, or root)
  • Chords are defined as major or minor. (diminished & augmented are not included in year 1)
aurally identify major and minor chord tonalities. (MU.912.S.1.4E O)
  • differences between major & minor chords
Week 29
Identify cadences (not specific to types: authentic, plagal, etc.): (MU.912.O.3.1I R)
  • Cadences are melodic or harmonic configuration that occur at the end of phrases and create a sense of rest/pause or finality.
Week 30
identify major musical themes including sections and patterns that outline structural form. (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
Identify music structure and the levels of organization: (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
  • Passage/Phrase: musical sentences, usually marked with cadences
  • Piece: entire structure of self-contained work
  • Cycle: several pieces that are grouped together as a larger work (suites, operas, concertos, song cycles, sonatas, etc...)
  • Strophic: the same music used with different verses of text (hymns, blues, many folk and popular songs, etc...)
  • Through-composed: different music for each stanza of lyrics (operas, modern musicals, movie scores, etc...)
identify major musical themes including sections and patterns that outline the form of a composition. (MU.912.S.2.1E P)
Week 31
infer compositional intent based on the structural elements. (MU.912.O.3.1I R)
Create two 4 measure phrases: (MU.912.S.1.1BAC C)
  • Restrictions: C major; 4/4; only use skips on tonic triad; only use whole, half, quarter notes.
  • Suggestion: perform student compositions individually and/or in 2 part combination.
Week 32
Identify compositional techniques: (MU.912.O.1.1I R)
  • imitation
  • sequence (immediate restatement of melodic material at higher or lower pitch)
  • inversion (melody turned upside down)
  • rise and fall contour of melody
Week 33
analyze a student generated composition and/or improvisation. (MU.912.C.2.3BAC )
  • composition
  • improvisation
  • melody
  • rhythm
  • texture
  • tonality
  • form
analyze performance options and suggest improvements based on cooperative feedback. (MU.912.C.2.3BAC )
  • applied learning strategies
create a short melody from an established key and tempo. (MU.912.S.1.1BAC C)
  • rhythm patterns
  • ostinato
  • round
  • standard harmonic progressions
  • call & response techniques
Create eight measure period (antecedent/consequence, a.k.a. musical question/answer or call/response) (MU.912.S.1.1BAC C)
  • minimum of two rhythmic values
  • melody must cadence in middle (cadence on sol ti or re) and end (end on do) (melodic rhythm to longer values)
  • mostly stepwise with maximum skip of thirds.
Perform as individual and/or small group - vocal testing on memorized literature. (MU.912.S.3.1E P)
Week 34
apply expressive criteria to a variety of musical selections, experiences, non-musical events, and cross-curricular content. (MU.912.O.3.2E P)
Week 35
Self-evaluate yearly vocal gains (range, tone, comfort, independence, etc) (MU.912.C.2.1BAC )
sequence the tasks necessary to organize a performance event. (MU.912.F.3.3BAC )
design and implement materials related to the performance. (MU.912.F.3.3BAC )
Exit testing on sight-reading (MU.912.S.3.2E O)
Week 36
explore pros and cons of recorded vs. live performance and the role of technology as a component and influence. (MU.912.H.3.1NTK R)